A database is a collection of data stored at one place and can easily be accessed and retrieved. The data can be in any format, it can either be an audio, video, numbers or letters. It is designed to provide an organized method of storing data and retrieving the data.

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What is the purpose of database?

The main purpose of database is to store information for electronic devices so as to retrieve the same data from any other electronic device. The database may contain important documents and files and can be retrieved when necessary.

How information is stored in database?

Basically the information entered is stored in tables, these tables have a simple and organized way to input information. It has a similar appearance as Microsoft excel sheet or Lotus 123. There is also a facility to create fields like name, address, phone number etc.

What are different types of databases?

There are many kinds of databases that are differentiated by its way of storing and retrieving data. They are:

Document-oriented Database: It is a computer programmed design which is designed to store, retrieve, manage all the documents in a computer or any hardware like tablets, phones etc.

Embedded Database: These kinds of databases are generally developed by the end users. For instance collection of documents, storing files, spreadsheets, presentations, media files etc.

Graph Database: This kind of database does not use SQL to store information, instead graph structures are used. Graph structures are developed with nodes, edges and other properties to represent and store the information.

Hypertext Database: This kind of database is used to organize different types of information together. For instance they can be used to store encyclopedias.

Operational Database: These databases store the information of an organization in detail.

Distributed Database: In this database information is not stored in a CPU, it is distributed among the computers located in same area or distributed among the network for interconnected computers.
Flat-File: These type of databases are used for small amount of data which is readable by human and can be edited.

What is Database Hosting?

Database Hosting are services are delivered by hosting providers. They provide services which enable you to run database supported applications. In this, a server is exclusively used for database or a website as per client’s requirement. Database Hosting is mainly required for clients who use applications that need to run programs like Customer Relation Management and Enterprise Resource Planning. As those applications require more memory, clients choose database hosting to increase the reliability of the application.

What are different types Database Hosting software?

There are many software available for database management system as there are different type of database management system. There are three kinds of database management systems, they are: Hierarchical DBMS, Network DBMS i.e., Relational DBMS and Object-Oriented DBMS.

Most popular software among all the Database Management Software are MySQL, Maria DB, Postgre SQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, SAP HANA, dBASE, FoxPro, IBM DB2, Sybase, Teradata, Informix, Ingres, Amazon’s Simple DB, LibreOffice Base and FileMaker Pro.    

But the most commonly used Software are : MySQL and MS SQL.

MySQL: It is an open source relational database management system. It is the popular choice of database for use in applications and is widely used in LAMP which is the acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python.

MSSQL: It is developed by Microsoft Corporation. It is also widely used in web applications which are developed by ASP.net, ASP etc. It provides different versions of SQL Server for different uses with different features.

Benefits of Database Hosting:

A database server can store a lot of information and can be retrieved easily. The information stored can be retrieved in seconds, this increases the performance of an application. For Example, Google loads more than billion pages within seconds, this is due to database. Whereas a normal web server cannot retrieve data as fast as a database. As database is very important for an application it will have more RAM due to which its performance and speed increases.

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Secure Socket Layer : It is the standard technology for creating an encrypted link between a web server and a browser that makes sure that the data passed between the web server and browser has remained private and protected. It was developed and released by Netscape in 1996 as a technology for security management. It is commonly used protocol for managing the security of the message transmission on internet. It is transparent protocol which requires little interaction from end user when creating a secure session. It is included as a part of both Microsoft and Netscape browsers as well as in most of the browsers. The “Sockets” part of the SSL (Secure Socket Layer) refers to sockets method of passing data between server and the browser or between the program layers in a same computer. In order to create a SSL connection a web server needs a SSL certification.

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What is SSL Certificate?

A SSL Certificate is a way by which the web servers prove their identity to the web browsers, allowing a secure site to communicate privately with the browsers through http protocol. It is digitally signed by a certificate authority that most of the web browsers trust, there are many certification authorities including government agencies . A company can purchase a SSL certificate for its web server from certificate authorities which verify the company’s identity. It inspires trust as each certificate contains identification details and the browser can share the details and it would be private and secure. It is also a bit of coding on web server to provide security for online communication.

Why is it essential and important?

Most of the people wonder as what is the need to use SSL. For people who own sites or customer who wants to make banking or any private transaction it is very important. If you are not using SSL the data transmitted or submitted is not encrypted and if the data reaches the  wrong hands it will create a problem. In order to be on safe side by using SSL data is encrypted and the information is safe.

How can you get a SSL Certificate?

For a SSL certificate first you need to create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) on your server which creates a private key. Then the CSR should be sent to SSL certificate issuer also called as Certificate Authority or CA. CA will use CSR data files to create a public key that pairs with your private key, the CA will never see private key. After receiving the certificate, install it in your server. Also install intermediate certificates that create credibility for your SSL certificate by tying it with CA’s root certificate. Instructions for installing and testing your certificate will be different based on your server. The certificate contains organization’s identity details, time of validation of the certificate and the name of the CA that issued the certificate.

A browser trusts the certificates and comes out with a list of reputed CAs. The certificate issued by CA verifies that the organization’s identity is genuine. As the browser trusts the CA and the CA certifies your organization, automatically the browser will trust the organization. Then the browser lets know he user that the website is secure and the user will be safe and can share the personal details.

How does it work?                                                

When a user requests for a website through a browser, the browser and the server create a connection through a process called “SSL Handshake”. This is not visible to the user and happens instantly. Mainly three keys are involved in setting up a SSL connection. They are a private key, a public key and a session key. The data encrypted by public key is decrypted by private key and vice-versa.

As the process of encrypting and decrypting the data using public and private keys takes a lot of processing power and time, these are only used at the time of SSL Handshaking to make an SSL connection and create a session key. Once the session key is created  all the transmitting data is encrypted using this session key.

The process goes in five simple steps:

  1. A Browser connects to a web server and requests the web server to identify itself.
  2. SSL sends a soft copy of its SSL certificate to the browser.
  3. Browser checks the certificate and looks if the certificate issued by a CA is in the list of its trusted CAs which it already has and also checks if the certificate unexpired, unrevoked and has a common name that is asked for. If all the details are valid then it creates, encrypts a session key and sends it back to the server through server’s public key.
  4. Server decrypts the session key using its private key and sends back an acknowledgment encrypted using a session key to start the encrypted session.
  5. Now both the server and the browser transmit the encrypted data through symmetric session key.

Types of SSL Certificates

There are many types of SSL certificates. You need to know about the features of all the certificates before purchasing it. Different types of certificates are:

Extended Validation (EV) SSL Certificate: This type of certificate is designed to prevent phishing attacks. It takes few days to few weeks of time to receive this certificate but provides very high assurance. Before issuing this certificate the CA checks applicant’s right to use of the domain and also conducts thorough vetting of the organization. It verifies legal, physical and operational existence of the organization or the domain. Also it checks the identity matches with the organizations official records. If all these are satisfied then the EV Certificate is issued.

EV SSL Certificates are available for all kinds of businesses, may be a government or non-government organizations. A set of guidelines called EV Audit Guidelines must be followed before issuing EV SSL Certificates. The audits are repeated for yearly.

Organization Validation (OV) SSL Certificate: Before issuing this kind of certificate the CA checks applicant’s right to use of the domain and also conducts vetting for the organization. This certificate displays the owner of the domain, its validation and the name of the CA that issued this certificate. This is provides a good assurance to the browsers.

Domain Validation (DV) SSL Certificates: This is a low assurance SSL Certificate. It only displays the domain name but not the owner or the organization details. But authorities can easily know to whom the domain belongs to using “WHOIS”. These certificates are issued instantly and cheaper than others but provide low assurance to the customers.

Wildcard Certificate: This certificate can secure all the sub-domains under a domain name. For example if you have a wildcard certificate for *.domain.com then it secures www.domain.com, mail.domain.com etc. It will secure all the sub-domains with wildcard symbol (*).

SGC SSL Certificate: These certificates enable old browsers to connect to site using 128 bit encryption even the normal browsers have 40 bit. These cost significantly and are issued by only few vendors as there are strong arguments against SGC SSL Certificates.

Root Certificate and Chain or Intermediate Certificate: CA issues certificates in the form of tree structure. The highest is the root certificate that is, it is most trusted certificate. Certificate which is signed by the trusted root certificate is trusted. All the certificates below the root certificate inherit trustworthiness from the root.

The certificate that links your organization’s certificate with the root certificate is called Chain certificate or Intermediate Certificate. These certificates must be installed in your server so that the browsers can link your certificate to a trusted authority.

Scalable SSL Certificate: Most of the certificate authorities now are issuing this certificate. Here the encryptions can be varied from lowest 40 bit to higher rate depending upon what the browsers and servers support.


There are many advantages of using SSL Certificate:

  1. Server Authentication: The certificates protect your website. All the information of your site is stored in a server, using SSL digital certificates all your and customers information is protected.
  2. Private Communication: Your transaction conversations will be private and the SSL certificates encrypt any data that is transmitted, hence the customers feel safer and secure about their data.
  3.  Customer Confidence: The main reason for which you would opt a SSL certificate is customer’s confidence. As the data will be encrypted the customers will feel that their information is safe and have confidence and faith in your site and feel free to share information.



Over so many advantages SSL also has disadvantages. They are

  1. Cost: This is the main disadvantage as cost for a certificate is really high.
  2. Performance: As the transmitting data is encrypted, more time is consumed and hjence it decreases the performance of the site.

With so many benefits the disadvantages can be overlooked. It is very much needed to use SSL Certificates especially if you are sharing personal information on sites. If your site is with SSL certificates, customers will trust your site and can share personal information.

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Host Department provides ComodoGeoTrust, VeriSign, Thawte SSL certificates starting from 11.95/ Year to the customers

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Redirect is a way to lead users and search engines to another url rather than actually which is requested for, this is usually done when the data is moved or the pages are expired. Redirect option is also present in email clients, it is similar to forward option. If you get a mail from abc@alpha.com and your mail id is xyz@alpha.com and you redirect the same mail to another email id then the email received will have from address like this:

From:  abc@alpha.com (by way of “your name” <xyz@alpha.com>)

Types of Redirect:

There are five types of redirects:

1. 301 Permanent Redirect:

This communicates that the document  at this address has permanently moved and hence the references to old address should be deleted and updated to new address. It also maintains search engine ranks.


  • If you want to delete a page then use 301 to forward the user to a logical location.
  • Even if you want to make a particular part of a document unavailable in favor of other, you can use 301 former to latter.

2. 302 Found(Temporary Redirect):          

This communicates that the document is temporarily moved. This means the old url can be brought back in future. This does not transfer any of the SEO juice and value of the original page.


  • If you want to test a page for client feedback then use 302.
  • If your site or page is under maintenance then 302 can be used.

3. 303 See Other:

To avoid book markings and refreshing pages  that have only one time data entry such as bill payments. This indicates that the information is received from you form by POST method and to avoid data accidents ,you can check the response by looking at the next url which shows the information using GET method. It also indicates that the resource has been replaced.


  • It is used by the web developers for credit card payments and  other payments .

4. 307 Temporary Redirect:

This is similar to 303, the difference is without changing the information submitted from one technique to another, it is submitted in the same technique used.


  • It is used by web developers.

5.  308 Permanent Redirect:

This is same as 307 but it is permanent redirect. You cannot  use the previous url again.


  • It is used by web developers.

Most useful and important redirects:

301 and 302 are most widely used redirects. They are defined by their server status.

For Example:

  • 301: “Moved 301 the data requested is assigned to new url permanently”.
  • 302: “Found 302 the data requested resides under different url however the redirection may be altered on occasion”.

There is also another type of redirection called Meta Refresh which is also used to a range.

Meta Refresh:

This is a browser based redirect. It is associated with pages that refresh after few seconds. These are mostly used at the payment gateways and should not be used unless there is a specific reason like this.

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Linux Operating System:

It is an operating system assembled under the model of open source software development and mostly used for server purpose. It supports a dozen of programming languages like C,C++,JAVA,PHP and many more.

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  • Low cost: You need not spend much money to obtain license as its softwares come from GNU General Public License. You can also download high quality software whenever you want, free of cost and you need not worry that your program may stop due to trail version. You can also install it in  many computers without paying.
  • Performance: Linux provides high performance on workstations and on networks. It also helps in making old computers  sufficient and usable again and also can handle many users at a time.
  • Stability: You don’t have to reboot periodically to maintain performance. It can handle large number of users and does not hang up or slow down due to memory issues. Continuous up time upto a year or so is common.
  • Flexibility: It is used for high performance applications, desktop applications and embedded applications. You can save disk space by installing components required for a particular use. You can restrict specific computers instead of all computers.
  • Security: The security aspect of the linux is very strong as it is very secure and it is less prominent to viruses, even if there is an attack there would be immediate step taken by the developers all over the world to resolve it.
  • Choice: Choice is one of the greatest advantage of Linux. It gives the power to control every aspect of the operating system. Main features that you have control is look and feel of desktop by Windows Manager and  kernel.


  • Understanding: To become familiar with Linux you need to have a lot of patience and desire to read and explore about it.
  • Software: Linux has a limited selection of available softwares.
  • Ease: Even though Linux has improved a lot in ease of use but windows is much easier.
  • Hardware: Linux doesnot support many hardware devices.

Windows Operating System:

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      It is family of operating system from Microsoft. If programming languages such as Visual Basic.net, ASP.net, Visual C#, Visual C++ are used then it is better to opt windows hosting.


  • Ease: Microsoft Windows has made much advancement and changes which made it easy to use the operating system. Even though it is not the easiest, it is easier than linux.
  • Software: Since there are more number of Microsoft users there are more software programs, games and utilities for windows. All most all games are compatible to windows, some CPU intensive and graphic intensive games are also supported.
  • Hardware: All hardware manufacturers will support Microsoft windows. Due to large number of Microsoft users and broader driver, all the hardware devices are supported.
  • Front Page Extension: When using a popular web design program having windows hosting makes it lot more easier. You don’t have to worry if it supported or not.
  • Development: If you plan to develop windows based applications then windows platform is most suggested as linux does not support windows applications.



  • Price: Microsoft windows is costly compared to Linux as each license costs between $50.00-$100.00.
  • Security: When compared to linux it is much more prone to viruses and other attacks.
  • Reliability: It needs to be rebooted periodically else there is a possibility of hang up of the system.
  • Software Cost: Even though the windows have softwares,games for free most of the programs will cost more than $200.

Conclusion: Both Windows and Linux Hosting have advantages and disadvantages. Based on your requirements you need to opt which hosting suits better.

The most important point that should be looked into while starting a website is hosting platform and resource requirement. It is very important, which kind of hosting you opt for the website. There are different kinds of hosting plans with different features; you should choose the one which is much suitable for the website. Hosting can be on Shared environment / VPS environment.

Shared Hosting:

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Shared hosting is nothing but multiple websites of different customers are hosted on a server. If you have started a business and you are expecting minimum number of visitors then this is a better option. Also if you are thinking about the expenditure or if you have a limited investment for hosting then shared hosting is preferable as it is most economical.

Benefits of Shared Hosting:

  • It is a very good option, if you have limited number of blogs and small websites as it is easy to maintain.
  • It is economical.
  • Technical maintenance is not required.

Drawbacks of Shared Hosting:

  • It has of limited resources.
  • Resources allocated to the server are shared among all the websites.
  • There is a slight chance of your website getting affected, if any other site hosted on the same server has some malicious content. This can happen only if server doesn’t hold required security software.
  • If your website require any specific application or specific files then it may not be possible, as you need to go with resources allocated.

VPS Hosting:

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Virtual Private Server Hosting is like customizing accordingly as per your conditions/requirements. Companies, who are working on multiple websites or the applications they hold require high/dedicated server resources and with limited budget, would go for VPS service. If the website is dealing with high security content and planning to host multiple blogs or sites then VPS Hosting is preferable. Also, if business is expanding and expecting a huge traffic for the website over some time then VPS Hosting can be opted.

Benefits of VPS Hosting:

  • Can opt for required space and bandwidth as per your requirement; and the resources opted are not shared with other customers websites/applications.
  • You can manage the VPS server, installed applications and services on your own.
  • As per your requirement, you can install and manage any third party applications.
  • You can have the backup at any point of time.

Drawbacks of VPS Hosting:

  • You need to have technical knowledge to manage the server and the installed applications.
  • Unlike shared hosting, cost is bit higher.

When should you upgrade Shared Hosting to VPS Hosting?

You can choose to upgrade from shared hosting to VPS hosting under following reasons:

  • If you wish to expand your business.
  • Planning to host more blogs and sites.
  • If you wish to have the whole control of the site and the server.
  • If you want dedicated resources allocated for your website or applications, but cannot afford the expense of your own server.

Conclusion: If your website is small and hosts limited number of blogs then shared hosting is advisable. But if you want a high security, good performance then VPS Hosting is advisable.

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