Marketing through internet(Online Marketing) is the growing and amazing form of marketing which reaches millions of people and it speaks about your business. The internet marketing also has another form of marketing apart from SEO which is called “Email Marketing”.

Yes, Email marketing.Email Marketing is nothing but sending commercial emails to a group of email addresses i.e., people. This is the most convenient and cost-effective way of marketing which directly reaches to people’s inbox. In email marketing usually a list is created, then according to the customers interest and information , the related emails will be sent. This helps in gaining trust and also in increasing sales.

There are many forms of email marketing like Welcome emails for new Clients, Update Notification Emails, Discounts and Offers Emails, New Product Launch Emails etc. For example: Let us take Google as an instance,as soon as we register for a goole account,Google sends a Welcome email followed by a gmail tour email. In the same way Google sends Emails when there is an update in the product, if there is any Offer and Discounts in the products related to the client, If a new product is launched, a trip to view all other products other than the one that client has bought etc.

One point that should always be included in your every email that is each email sent should contain company’s information at the bottom. It helps the customer in learning more about the company and also may have a look at other products. There should also be one Option saying “To get more emails related to the product and updates click here” . Why this option? This is very necessary as all the clients may not be willing to get these frequent updates and may not be interested in that.
Without their permission if emails are sent frequently they may mark the email as spam. In order to avoid it, better to take permission and then send an Email.

Content in the Emails: Always be specific about the content written in the email as the main objective of email marketing is to let people know about your products and updates, so when writing content keep in mind that the words written in the content should be very polite and do not write the information which is already known to the client, directly come to the point by giving him the knowledge which will be helpful for him/her in learning your new product or Offers/Discounts or any other updates. Avoid long and time consuming content.

Sending Emails to many addresses is not so easy and it is time consuming too. This time can be saved by using a software called email marketing software which helps in sending bulk emails at once. There are many types of email marketing softwares with many features, it differs from one type to another but the basic features that are included in all email marketing softwares are
1.Creating list of Email addresses
2.Framing your Email
3.Sending bulk Emails

According to the recent survey it has been noticed that not all the Emails sent reach the client’s inbox. It is said that at most 80-83% of emails sent reach Client’s inbox where as remaining 17-20% of emails either go missing or into Junk/Spam. Now obviously the ability of emails reaching the client’s inbox is pretty challenging.

statistics on how emails reach to the customers

Be Aware: When sending bulk emails be careful, before sending make sure or check for email existence as it is very important because if an email is not existing then email sent will be bounced back. Too many bounces from an account and spam marked account will be suspended and you can no longer send emails to the Clients using that account.

Basically a Search Engine is a software that runs to collect information from world wide web. When a person searches for a word or any information let’s say host department, the search engines collects all the information present in world wide web and displays the resulted information in an order, this page is referred as “Search Engine Results Page”. The collected results will be displayed according to word’s priority and then the ranking of the websites. Know its is a big question, How are rankings assigned to the websites?Answer is, based on “Search Engine Algorithms”. These search algorithms will vary from one search engine to another. There are many Search engines but the most used and popular search engines are Google, Yahoo, Bing.

Every search engine follows an algorithm to serve their best to the users. But why an algorithm? In earlier days there were no algorithms to collect the information. Any site which had more number of words that matched with the user’s search word would be displayed first and like wise other sites in descending order would be displayed depending on the count. But later on the spammers, bots, virus and other attacks have increased due to which the search engines couldn’t result the appropriate sites related to the user’s search. In order to avoid all these Search Engines started making complex algorithms and give the users best and quality results using  Search Engine Algorithms.

seo man by host department

 

Some of the algorithms of Google search engine are:

  • Penguin Algorithm is one of the many algorithms of google.
  • Panda 4.0 was last updated on 14 May 2014.
  • Pegion was last updated on 24 July 2014…….Etc

To know more about google algorithms click here : MOZ Blog

These are the algorithms that search engine follows and they vary for different streams. But now how can you make your website visible to search engine and people? This is the question through which most beginners keep along, for this there is a process called “Search Engine Optimization”

Search Engine Optimization is a process of making your website visible on search engine results page. This is a kind of online marketing technique. The main aim of SEO is obtaining a better rank for the website by which the website will be resulting in the first results page.

SEO Process Diagram

To improve website’s ranking there are many methods and techniques to improve ranking. At the same time there are some rules and guidelines for optimization. Based on this it is divided into two categories

  1. White Hat SEO
  2. Black Hat SEO.

White Hat SEO is that which follows and go along with SEO guidelines and rules, to increase the reputation and ranking of he website. By these techniques the result will be slow and takes longer time to improve ranking than Black Hat SEO techniques but will be long lasting and reputed. The White Hat SEO techniques include

White hat seo by host department

On Page Factors: On Page optimization includes the activities that take place within the website’s pages itself.

  • Meta Description tag
  • ALT tags
  • H1 tags
  • URL structure
  • Internal linking strategy
  • Content
  • Keyword density
  • Site maps, both XML and user facing
  • Usability and accessibility
  • Track target keywords
  • Keyword selection

Off Page Factors: Off Page Optimization includes the activities that takes place in another sites, for example : Link Building.

  • Use Keywords in link anchor text
  • Obtain links from high ranking publisher sites
  • One-way inbound links
  • Different keywords in your link-ads from the same site
  • Gradual link building technology
  • Use relevant keywords near your inbound link
  • Deep linking
  • Target a large list of keywords more than 500
  • Link from sites with a variety of link ranks
  • Track all active keywords and refine strategy as required

On Page VS Off Page (SEO):

In this new internet world just On Page Optimization is not sufficient for a better ranking. For better ranking first of all you need traffic to your website which is done by off page SEO. With the help of off page optimization factors like link building, in bound link helps you in getting traffic to your website. Once you get the traffic, for better user experience you need the help of On Page Optimization factors like quality and relevant content, give users a better experience by increasing the web pages fast loading time, short links and making it user-friendly which is all a part of On Page SEO.

There are more than 200 ranking factors that help in making website’s rank better.These include both on page and off page factors.

Black Hat SEO techniques are those which conflict or do not follow the SEO guidelines. These techniques are used to improve the ranking quickly in short period of time. By using these the techniques the ranking improves fast, it is unpredictable and the ranking may consistent for short term. Some of the tricks and techniques of Black Hat SEO are:

stop black hat seo

Content Spam Include :

  • Keyword Stuffing
  • Hidden Text
  • Doorway Pages
  • Scraper sites
  • Article spinning
  • Meta tag stuffing

Link Spam Include :

  • Hidden links
  • Sybil Attack
  • Link building software
  • Spam blogs
  • Page hijacking
  • Cookie Stuffing
  • Spam Comment
  • Purchasing expired domains.

Others :

  • Cloaking
  • URL Redirection
  • Mirror websites

By following the Black Hat SEO techniques the website may be banned and a penalty has to be paid.

Checklist for better ranking:

seo check list

Checkout these 12 points for better ranking in short duration. It don’t say it will be a drastic change in ranking but will help in getting better.

  • Front-load tag : Target keywords should be at the beginning of the title tag.
  • Short url : Try to keep url as short as possible.
  • Use Multimedia : In blogs use atleast one multimedia, for better user interaction.
  • Use outbound links : Cover atleast one or two outbound links to any popular site in the content you publish.
  • Target keywords in H1 : Always keep title in H1 tag and also the target words should be within first 100 word of the article.
  • Loading Speed : You can check your site’s speed at “Google Page Speed” Here are few tips to speed up your website.
  • Social Sharing buttons : These buttons are must as they make it easy for users to share the content and should be placed at the right place.
  • Publish Long Content : Write relevant and long content for more than 1500 words which is considered as long article.
  • Use LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) keywords : LSI keywords are those words which are accompanied by the target keywords. For example “Stationary” is the target key word then LSI words would be “notebooks”,”pen”, “pencil” etc.
  • Internal linking : When you are posting a new article try to have an internal link to the older articles related to that topic.
  • Dwell Time : Write a long and interesting content for the users to keep on reading. That increases dwell time I.e, the time a user stays in the page till he click back button.
  • Image optimization : The keyword’s images might bring you traffic through Google images, this is not much important but still why loose a chance.

Many would be wondering Is SEO necessary? Yes, especially if you are owning an e-commerce website as it is available only through online. You will need more customers for your business to get into next level, and obviously you need a better ranking for your website for search engine to show up your website in the results first page organically. Organic results are those results which are genuine and have better quality and reputation unlike paid marketing.

Online business is growing much faster and they rely on online users. So to attract them towards their site and get notified SEO is necessary. SEO will not only improve the site’s ranking but also divert traffic to the site from different sources present on internet. It improves small or big business with methods and tactics and also gives your company a ”brand” identification. SEO has methods for all types of businesses small or big, even methods for low and high budgets. But SEO is as an ongoing process, once you get a better ranking it doesn’t mean you should stop SEO process, it should be continued as ranking may cahnge any time as out there many competitors would be trying their best.

SEO Tools:

For more free SEO Tools Click moz blog 100 free seo tools

With so many tools and methods, SEO has rocked in online marketing with the best organic results and serving the users  appropriately. It is also helping the relevant websites to provide quality service to users.

Cloud Computing is nothing but using and accessing applications through internet. In addition to configuration and manipulation of applications we can also store data online. Usually in cloud computing you do not need to install any software for any application to run or work in your PC, this is what makes a difference which avoids platform dependency issues. This is how Cloud computing is making applications mobile and collaborative.

Behind Cloud Computing platform there are 4 technologies working which makes Cloud Computing flexible and reliable. The Cloud Computing technologies are :

1. Virtualization :Virtualization is a technique where in an instance of application that is present physically is allowed to be shared with many computers and organizations. This is done by allocating a name to that physical resource and when requested, it is directed using a pointer. By this the customers can use as if they own the instance without actually having it physically.

 2. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) : SOA is a technique that allows customers to use applications as a service to access other applications irrespective of technology, product etc. Due to this functionality the data exchange between different applications is possible without any additional programming and installation.

 3. Grid Computing : This is a technique where computers from different locations in the world work together for a common objective. Grid Computing makes complex tasks simple and into small pieces,these pieces are distributed among CPUs present in the grid.

 4. Utility Computing : This techniques is a kind of pay and use which is more applicable in managing IT services. It provides the service to the customers and charge them according to the usage instead of flat price.

Cloud Computing Architecture

Cloud Computing Architecture Front End and Back End

The basic cloud computing architecture is divided into two main parts.

 1.Front End : The front end is the client part. It consists of interfaces and applications which are necessary to access other applications. The front end is connected to back end via internet. For example web browsers are front ends.

 2.Back End : It is the cloud by itself containing huge data storage, security, deployment models, service, servers, cloud infrastructure,management etc.

Cloud Infrastructure

The cloud infrastructure comprises of management software, deployment software, network, servers, storage and hypervisor.

  • Management software : It maintains and configures the infrastructure.
  • Hypervisor : It is a low level program that allows physical resources to share among customers. This acts as a Virtual Machine Manager.
  • Network : It helps the cloud services in connecting through internet and also the customers can change network route and protocol as per their requirement.
  • Server : It helps in computation and also provides services like resource allocation and deallocation, monitoring and many more.
  • Storage : Cloud computing makes storage very reliable as it uses file distributed system. In this system if the data couldn’t be fetched from one file then it fetches from other files.
  • Deployment Software : It helps in deploying and integrating applications on the cloud.

Deployment Models

There are four kinds of deployment models

Public Cloud Model : In this model all (general public) can access applications and services. Many providers exist, in which some of them are Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc.

Advantages:

  • It is cost effective
  • It is flexible
  • It is reliable
  • It is location Independent
  • It is highly scalable

Disadvantages:

  • It has low security as it is available in public and may be attacked by virus or DDoS.
  • It is less customizable than other clouds.

Private Cloud Model : In this model only people of particular organization can access the applications and services. It can also be managed internally or by a third party.

Advantages:

  • As it is accessible within an organisation it has high security and privacy.
  • You can have more control over the cloud

Disadvantages:

  • Restricted area
  • High pricing
  • Limited scalability

Hybrid Cloud Model : This model is the combination of public and private Cloud models. In this you can perform non critical activities using public cloud and critical activities using private cloud.

Advantages:

  • Scalability
  • Flexibility
  • Cost efficient

Disadvantages:

  • There may be security issues.
  • Infrastructural Dependency

Community Cloud Model : In this model a group of organizations can use the same cloud ie., here the infrastructure is shared by a group of organizations and can be maintained internally or with the help of third party.

Advantages:

  • Cost effective

Disadvantages:

  • Security

Cloud Service Models

There are 3 basic service models

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Model : This model offers access to physical resources like physical and virtual machines, data storage. Virtual Machines are pre installed as an operating system and they allow to store a specific data in different locations and also computing resources can be easily scaled up and down. It offers disk storage, local area network , load balancers, IP addresses, software bundles etc. This model also allows the cloud provider to locate infrastructure over the internet. IaaS helps in controlling the computing resources via administrative access to virtual machines. There are also some issues along with the benefits and the issues are compatibility with legacy security vulnerabilities, virtual machine sprawl etc.

Platform as a Service (PaaS) Model : This model acts as a run time environment and allow to develop and deploy tools required for the applications. It has a special feature that helps non developers to create web applications. This also offers API and development tools required to develop an application. The benefits of this model are low cost of ownership and scalable solutions. But the disadvantage is, in PaaS the consumer’s browser has to maintain reliable and secure connections to the provider systems. There is also a lack of probability between PaaS clouds.

Software as a Service (SaaS) Model : In this model a software is deployed on hosted service and is accessible through internet. It allows to provide software application to the users. Billing and Invoicing System,customer relationship management (CRM) applications, Help Desk Applications are some of SaaS applications. The software’s license is available based on usage or subscription. They are cost effective and requires less maintenance . In this multiple users can share an instance and is not required to code functionality of each user. Scalability, efficiency, performance are the benefits of SaaS. The issues with this model are Lack of portability between SaaS clouds and browser based risks.

Cloud Storage

The cloud storage helps in saving data offline, which is maintained by a third party. The storage devices are classified into two:

  • Block Storage Devices : Raw storage is offered to the clients and allows to create volumes using raw storage.
  • File Storage Devices : In this storage is in the form of NAS(Network Attached Storage). Here clients are offered the storage in the form of files.

What is Cloud Hosting?

Cloud computing offers hosting services called cloud hosting. In cloud hosting websites are hosted on virtual server and when the information is required, the files are pulled from a network of physical web server and depending on the service requirement, files are fetched. There is also a facility in cloud hosting that you can pay based on your usage and avoid payment for unused.

How is Cloud Hosting different from Traditional Hosting?

The traditional hosting normally are four different types of hosting services, they are shared hosting,VPS hosting, dedicated hosting and grid hosting. When comparing these hosting services with cloud hosting you will know the difference between cloud and traditional hosting.

  1. When comparing cloud hosting with shared hosting we find that in shared hosting the probability of down time is more compared to cloud hosting.
  2. When comparing cloud hosting with VPS hosting we find that VPS servers are less efficient that cloud servers as it fetches files from one server only where as cloud fetches files from multiple servers when required.
  3. When comparing cloud hosting with dedicated hosting we find that in dedicated hosting, servers don’t run on full capacity and are very expensive compared to cloud hosting.
  4. When comparing cloud hosting with grid hosting we find that grid hosting is same as cloud hosting but the difference lies in the processing procedure of completing a huge task.

Advantages:

  • As you don’t have to maintain separate physical servers for every application and service, it is cost effective.
  • The data storage is almost unlimited.
  • As your data will be stored in the cloud it is easy to recover, than when stored in any other device.
  • As software will be installed automatically when needed you don’t have install manually or upgrade it.
  • It is easy to access as you can get your information from anywhere in the world, if once registered.

Disadvantages:

  • As it is a new upcoming technology there might be some technical issues, in which some of them can be solved and some cannot.
  • Security is major problem.
  • It may be prone to attacks as files will be fetched from different servers. If one server is attacked automatically whole network is attacked.

Conclusion:

Like every technology has pros and cons, cloud hosting too has. It depends on your requirements and budget, based on which you have to choose the right hosting for your website as choosing right hosting is very important and difficult too because it really matters for your business.

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The DNS (Domain Name System) technology manages the websites domains names .A DNS Server is like a phone directory for internet i.e., it provides same service to the internet. When you type the domain name in the browser, the browser connects to the DNS server and checks for the IP address to which the domain name is registered and then displays the Website.

Private DNS servers:

Most of the DNS servers are private DNS servers. These servers allows you to have your own hosting services and can have accounts on your name.Private DNS servers are available for reseler, shared, cloud Hosting and dedicated users. These servers provide service only to those who own and configures them. For example XYZ and ABC have their own private servers, XYZ cannot use ABC servers and viceversa.

Public DNS servers:

Some of the companies provide free DNS servers which are available on net and these are called as public DNS servers. They provide service to who ever request them. Google, ScrubIt, dnsadvantage, OpenDNS these are the companies which provide public DNS servers.

1. Google

8.8.8.8
8.8.4.4

2. ScrubIt Public DNS server address:

67.138.54.100
207.225.209.66

3. dnsadvantage free DNS servers:

156.154.70.1
156.154.71.1

4. OpenDNS

208.67.222.222
208.67.220.220

Why is it important?

Generally it is really hard to remember numbers than names, remembering IP addresses of all the sites is highly impossible. This DNS server helps you in connecting the site’s domain name with its IP address.

For instance you want to open host department site, you don’t have to know its IP address you can just type host department in the browser and it will automatically get connected to its IP address 69.164.246.43. It is not at all possible to open a website with its name without DNS technology unless you know its IP address.

How does it work?

DNS Servers are arranged in hierarchy and they communicate with the help of a private network protocol. The servers that are placed at the top level are called as root servers. There are 13 root servers, these store all the internet domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. These severs are maintained by different agencies. Out of these 13 root servers 10 are situated in United States, 1 in Japan , 1 in Sweden and 1 in United Kingdom. Only these 13 servers store all the information and other servers which are at the low level of hierarchy,store information of certain departments or pieces of the whole existing database. These servers are maintained by Internet Service Providers. In DNS networking your web browser acts as a client and sends a request to your ISP’s DNS server and then the following process is followed.

  • First when a user types a domain name in the browser say www.hostdepartment.com, the computer first checks the local DNS cache if it already has the website’s IP address (if already that website has been visited by the computer). If the name doesn’t match with the name then it performs a DNS query to get the IP address.
  • If the information is not available locally then your computer sends a request to your ISP’s DNS server. These servers are recursive DNS servers and they are provided with their own caches and mostly the process end here and the information is received by the browser.
  • In case if the information is not available then the request is sent to the next level servers that is to root name servers. These root servers don’t have the answer but they can direct you in a way where you can find the IP address of the domain name.
  • The root servers reads the domain name www.hostdepartment.com and direct you to the TLD servers(Top Level Domain) for .com. Each TLD .com, .net, .org and so on has their own servers. These severs will not have the information but they directly direct us to the server which contains the information.
  • The TLD servers checks the domain name www.hostdepartment.com and directs you to the .com specific server called authoritative servers. These servers will have all the information about the domain with .com, these information are stored in records. There are different types of records each record consists of different information. For instance if you want to know the address of a particular domain then it will check for the address record.
  • The ISP’s recursive DNS server retrieves the information from the authoritative server and stores in the local DNS cache. When someone else requests for the same site then it directly checks in cache and send the information to the browser instead of going through all the process again.
  • The record stored in cache have an expiry time, if the domain record expires then recursive DNS server requests for a copy so that the information is not out-dated.The recursive then sends the information to the computer, the computer stores the address in its cache and then sends address to the browser which makes a connection to the web server and opens the website. All these steps takes place in just milliseconds of time.

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DDOS is nothing but distributed denial of service , this attack is very well trained and uses internet to get into a system and attack the network . Many computers using internet can also be used to attack other systems. If a denial of service attacks a computer or network then the user will not be able to access emails or the internet, These attacks can be directed towards an operating system (OS) or a network.

How did DDOS attacks start?

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DDOS attacks started in late 90’s, initially the attackers used to make full use of victim’s bandwidth and not letting others to get the service. To make these attacks more damageable many attackers should manually synchronize. This type of attack has become public in the year 1997, when a DDoS attack tool called as “Trinoo” was released and was available publicly.

Types of DoS attacks:

Dos attacks are classified into three different types based on the method of attacks. They are:

1.Bandwidth/Throughput Attacks:

These type of attacks are again classified into different types:

Ping Flood Attack: This is a kind of attack by which an attacker attacks on the bandwidth connection so that a network is saturated with an ICMP echo request packets so as to slow or stop the traffic which is going through the network.

Distributed SYN Flood: The attack focuses on the bandwidth of many machines and by doing so, it
is possible to use more number of weakly distributed computers and a big flood attack is created.

UDP Flood Attacks: In UDP protocol it is very easy to use interface to produce large quantity of packets . Hence it is very easy for an attacker to produce large packets with little effort and this is how a victim’s network is flooded with UDP packets and is attacked.

2. Protocol Attacks:

These type of attacks are divided into two types:

Smurf Attack: Here a spoof IP packet with ICMP echo -request with an address of victim’s system and a destination address are sent to an intermediate network. By sending an ICMP echo request to destination address , it triggers all the host that are included in the network and thus leading to production of large number of packets that are routed to that spoof IP address.

DNS name server Attack: his is one of the most common method for attacks, mainly by sending a high number of UDP based DNS requests to a nameserver using a spoof IP address, now any nameserver response is sent back to the destination i.e., to the spoofed IP address and here this IP address is the victim of the DoS attack. So, it is difficult for a nameserver or the victim to determine the true source of the attack.

3. Software Vulnerability Attacks:

These attacks are again divided into 3 types:

Land Attack: This kind of attack uses TCP/IP, here attacker sends a TCP SYN packets with source and destination address same i.e., same as the victim’s host address. The TCP/IP stack implements those kind of packets which leads to victim’s host to crush or hang. You can reduce the possibilities of your network being used as an initiate forged packets by filtering the out going packets that are having different source address from your internal network.

Ping of Death Attack: This is a method by which an attacker tries to crash , hang or reboot a system by sending illegal ICMP packet to the victim who is going to he attacked. Generally a TCP/IP allows a maximum packet size till 65536 octets, if the packets encountered are greater in size then victim’s host may crash. Usually the ICMP uses packets of header size of 8 octets by allows the user to specify even larger sizes. Here in Ping Death of attack ICMP packets are sent in the form of small parts of messages , when these are reorganized it turns out to be large packet size.

Teardrop Attack: In this type of attack first a packet of small size is sent. Then another packet said to be the part of the first packet sent. The second packet sent is very small to pick it from the first packet, this causes an error is assembling and the system may crash or hang. Generally fragmentation is very necessary if the message size is large , at the receiving end all the fragmented packets are reassembled to complete it, teardrop attacks concentrate here and sends unrelated fragment packets, which leads to system crash or hang when trying to assemble them.

Effects of DDoS:

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1. An DDoS attack on a site not only affects that site but also other site which relate to the same network and the server.

2.The bandwidth that is provided is attacked it not only affects the victim host but also the bandwidth provider and others who share bandwidth with the service provider.

3. When DoS attack it already increases the traffic to the site that the whole system crashes , in addition to that customers logging add more traffic to the site, this definitely leads to site crash .

4. Due to highly increased bandwidth by the attack you need pay extra to that highly increased bandwidth.

How to Handle DoS attacks:

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1. Initially before they attack you need to take preventions like separate client and server addresses, using path based client addresses strictly avoids spoof addressing, RPF checking of server addresses and also by using midwalls.

2. Detection is very important, as early you detect it you can lessen the damage. By using automated intrusion detecting system you can detect the attacks at an early stage and take necessary action.

3. What we do after the attack is very important, based on the attack try to follow the procedures and taking back up so as to avoid huge loss. Try to maintain the traffic and also for a while blocking the traffic and filtering is also important.

Conclusion:
It is always better to take precautionary steps to avoid DDoS attack as it causes a lot of damage not only to the victim host but also to the entire network that is connected to that host.

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