Cloud Computing is nothing but using and accessing applications through internet. In addition to configuration and manipulation of applications we can also store data online. Usually in cloud computing you do not need to install any software for any application to run or work in your PC, this is what makes a difference which avoids platform dependency issues. This is how Cloud computing is making applications mobile and collaborative.

Behind Cloud Computing platform there are 4 technologies working which makes Cloud Computing flexible and reliable. The Cloud Computing technologies are :

1. Virtualization :Virtualization is a technique where in an instance of application that is present physically is allowed to be shared with many computers and organizations. This is done by allocating a name to that physical resource and when requested, it is directed using a pointer. By this the customers can use as if they own the instance without actually having it physically.

 2. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) : SOA is a technique that allows customers to use applications as a service to access other applications irrespective of technology, product etc. Due to this functionality the data exchange between different applications is possible without any additional programming and installation.

 3. Grid Computing : This is a technique where computers from different locations in the world work together for a common objective. Grid Computing makes complex tasks simple and into small pieces,these pieces are distributed among CPUs present in the grid.

 4. Utility Computing : This techniques is a kind of pay and use which is more applicable in managing IT services. It provides the service to the customers and charge them according to the usage instead of flat price.

Cloud Computing Architecture

Cloud Computing Architecture Front End and Back End

The basic cloud computing architecture is divided into two main parts.

 1.Front End : The front end is the client part. It consists of interfaces and applications which are necessary to access other applications. The front end is connected to back end via internet. For example web browsers are front ends.

 2.Back End : It is the cloud by itself containing huge data storage, security, deployment models, service, servers, cloud infrastructure,management etc.

Cloud Infrastructure

The cloud infrastructure comprises of management software, deployment software, network, servers, storage and hypervisor.

  • Management software : It maintains and configures the infrastructure.
  • Hypervisor : It is a low level program that allows physical resources to share among customers. This acts as a Virtual Machine Manager.
  • Network : It helps the cloud services in connecting through internet and also the customers can change network route and protocol as per their requirement.
  • Server : It helps in computation and also provides services like resource allocation and deallocation, monitoring and many more.
  • Storage : Cloud computing makes storage very reliable as it uses file distributed system. In this system if the data couldn’t be fetched from one file then it fetches from other files.
  • Deployment Software : It helps in deploying and integrating applications on the cloud.

Deployment Models

There are four kinds of deployment models

Public Cloud Model : In this model all (general public) can access applications and services. Many providers exist, in which some of them are Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc.

Advantages:

  • It is cost effective
  • It is flexible
  • It is reliable
  • It is location Independent
  • It is highly scalable

Disadvantages:

  • It has low security as it is available in public and may be attacked by virus or DDoS.
  • It is less customizable than other clouds.

Private Cloud Model : In this model only people of particular organization can access the applications and services. It can also be managed internally or by a third party.

Advantages:

  • As it is accessible within an organisation it has high security and privacy.
  • You can have more control over the cloud

Disadvantages:

  • Restricted area
  • High pricing
  • Limited scalability

Hybrid Cloud Model : This model is the combination of public and private Cloud models. In this you can perform non critical activities using public cloud and critical activities using private cloud.

Advantages:

  • Scalability
  • Flexibility
  • Cost efficient

Disadvantages:

  • There may be security issues.
  • Infrastructural Dependency

Community Cloud Model : In this model a group of organizations can use the same cloud ie., here the infrastructure is shared by a group of organizations and can be maintained internally or with the help of third party.

Advantages:

  • Cost effective

Disadvantages:

  • Security

Cloud Service Models

There are 3 basic service models

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Model : This model offers access to physical resources like physical and virtual machines, data storage. Virtual Machines are pre installed as an operating system and they allow to store a specific data in different locations and also computing resources can be easily scaled up and down. It offers disk storage, local area network , load balancers, IP addresses, software bundles etc. This model also allows the cloud provider to locate infrastructure over the internet. IaaS helps in controlling the computing resources via administrative access to virtual machines. There are also some issues along with the benefits and the issues are compatibility with legacy security vulnerabilities, virtual machine sprawl etc.

Platform as a Service (PaaS) Model : This model acts as a run time environment and allow to develop and deploy tools required for the applications. It has a special feature that helps non developers to create web applications. This also offers API and development tools required to develop an application. The benefits of this model are low cost of ownership and scalable solutions. But the disadvantage is, in PaaS the consumer’s browser has to maintain reliable and secure connections to the provider systems. There is also a lack of probability between PaaS clouds.

Software as a Service (SaaS) Model : In this model a software is deployed on hosted service and is accessible through internet. It allows to provide software application to the users. Billing and Invoicing System,customer relationship management (CRM) applications, Help Desk Applications are some of SaaS applications. The software’s license is available based on usage or subscription. They are cost effective and requires less maintenance . In this multiple users can share an instance and is not required to code functionality of each user. Scalability, efficiency, performance are the benefits of SaaS. The issues with this model are Lack of portability between SaaS clouds and browser based risks.

Cloud Storage

The cloud storage helps in saving data offline, which is maintained by a third party. The storage devices are classified into two:

  • Block Storage Devices : Raw storage is offered to the clients and allows to create volumes using raw storage.
  • File Storage Devices : In this storage is in the form of NAS(Network Attached Storage). Here clients are offered the storage in the form of files.

What is Cloud Hosting?

Cloud computing offers hosting services called cloud hosting. In cloud hosting websites are hosted on virtual server and when the information is required, the files are pulled from a network of physical web server and depending on the service requirement, files are fetched. There is also a facility in cloud hosting that you can pay based on your usage and avoid payment for unused.

How is Cloud Hosting different from Traditional Hosting?

The traditional hosting normally are four different types of hosting services, they are shared hosting,VPS hosting, dedicated hosting and grid hosting. When comparing these hosting services with cloud hosting you will know the difference between cloud and traditional hosting.

  1. When comparing cloud hosting with shared hosting we find that in shared hosting the probability of down time is more compared to cloud hosting.
  2. When comparing cloud hosting with VPS hosting we find that VPS servers are less efficient that cloud servers as it fetches files from one server only where as cloud fetches files from multiple servers when required.
  3. When comparing cloud hosting with dedicated hosting we find that in dedicated hosting, servers don’t run on full capacity and are very expensive compared to cloud hosting.
  4. When comparing cloud hosting with grid hosting we find that grid hosting is same as cloud hosting but the difference lies in the processing procedure of completing a huge task.

Advantages:

  • As you don’t have to maintain separate physical servers for every application and service, it is cost effective.
  • The data storage is almost unlimited.
  • As your data will be stored in the cloud it is easy to recover, than when stored in any other device.
  • As software will be installed automatically when needed you don’t have install manually or upgrade it.
  • It is easy to access as you can get your information from anywhere in the world, if once registered.

Disadvantages:

  • As it is a new upcoming technology there might be some technical issues, in which some of them can be solved and some cannot.
  • Security is major problem.
  • It may be prone to attacks as files will be fetched from different servers. If one server is attacked automatically whole network is attacked.

Conclusion:

Like every technology has pros and cons, cloud hosting too has. It depends on your requirements and budget, based on which you have to choose the right hosting for your website as choosing right hosting is very important and difficult too because it really matters for your business.

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The DNS (Domain Name System) technology manages the websites domains names .A DNS Server is like a phone directory for internet i.e., it provides same service to the internet. When you type the domain name in the browser, the browser connects to the DNS server and checks for the IP address to which the domain name is registered and then displays the Website.

Private DNS servers:

Most of the DNS servers are private DNS servers. These servers allows you to have your own hosting services and can have accounts on your name.Private DNS servers are available for reseler, shared, cloud Hosting and dedicated users. These servers provide service only to those who own and configures them. For example XYZ and ABC have their own private servers, XYZ cannot use ABC servers and viceversa.

Public DNS servers:

Some of the companies provide free DNS servers which are available on net and these are called as public DNS servers. They provide service to who ever request them. Google, ScrubIt, dnsadvantage, OpenDNS these are the companies which provide public DNS servers.

1. Google

8.8.8.8
8.8.4.4

2. ScrubIt Public DNS server address:

67.138.54.100
207.225.209.66

3. dnsadvantage free DNS servers:

156.154.70.1
156.154.71.1

4. OpenDNS

208.67.222.222
208.67.220.220

Why is it important?

Generally it is really hard to remember numbers than names, remembering IP addresses of all the sites is highly impossible. This DNS server helps you in connecting the site’s domain name with its IP address.

For instance you want to open host department site, you don’t have to know its IP address you can just type host department in the browser and it will automatically get connected to its IP address 69.164.246.43. It is not at all possible to open a website with its name without DNS technology unless you know its IP address.

How does it work?

DNS Servers are arranged in hierarchy and they communicate with the help of a private network protocol. The servers that are placed at the top level are called as root servers. There are 13 root servers, these store all the internet domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. These severs are maintained by different agencies. Out of these 13 root servers 10 are situated in United States, 1 in Japan , 1 in Sweden and 1 in United Kingdom. Only these 13 servers store all the information and other servers which are at the low level of hierarchy,store information of certain departments or pieces of the whole existing database. These servers are maintained by Internet Service Providers. In DNS networking your web browser acts as a client and sends a request to your ISP’s DNS server and then the following process is followed.

  • First when a user types a domain name in the browser say www.hostdepartment.com, the computer first checks the local DNS cache if it already has the website’s IP address (if already that website has been visited by the computer). If the name doesn’t match with the name then it performs a DNS query to get the IP address.
  • If the information is not available locally then your computer sends a request to your ISP’s DNS server. These servers are recursive DNS servers and they are provided with their own caches and mostly the process end here and the information is received by the browser.
  • In case if the information is not available then the request is sent to the next level servers that is to root name servers. These root servers don’t have the answer but they can direct you in a way where you can find the IP address of the domain name.
  • The root servers reads the domain name www.hostdepartment.com and direct you to the TLD servers(Top Level Domain) for .com. Each TLD .com, .net, .org and so on has their own servers. These severs will not have the information but they directly direct us to the server which contains the information.
  • The TLD servers checks the domain name www.hostdepartment.com and directs you to the .com specific server called authoritative servers. These servers will have all the information about the domain with .com, these information are stored in records. There are different types of records each record consists of different information. For instance if you want to know the address of a particular domain then it will check for the address record.
  • The ISP’s recursive DNS server retrieves the information from the authoritative server and stores in the local DNS cache. When someone else requests for the same site then it directly checks in cache and send the information to the browser instead of going through all the process again.
  • The record stored in cache have an expiry time, if the domain record expires then recursive DNS server requests for a copy so that the information is not out-dated.The recursive then sends the information to the computer, the computer stores the address in its cache and then sends address to the browser which makes a connection to the web server and opens the website. All these steps takes place in just milliseconds of time.

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DDOS is nothing but distributed denial of service , this attack is very well trained and uses internet to get into a system and attack the network . Many computers using internet can also be used to attack other systems. If a denial of service attacks a computer or network then the user will not be able to access emails or the internet, These attacks can be directed towards an operating system (OS) or a network.

How did DDOS attacks start?

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DDOS attacks started in late 90′s, initially the attackers used to make full use of victim’s bandwidth and not letting others to get the service. To make these attacks more damageable many attackers should manually synchronize. This type of attack has become public in the year 1997, when a DDoS attack tool called as “Trinoo” was released and was available publicly.

Types of DoS attacks:

Dos attacks are classified into three different types based on the method of attacks. They are:

1.Bandwidth/Throughput Attacks:

These type of attacks are again classified into different types:

Ping Flood Attack: This is a kind of attack by which an attacker attacks on the bandwidth connection so that a network is saturated with an ICMP echo request packets so as to slow or stop the traffic which is going through the network.

Distributed SYN Flood: The attack focuses on the bandwidth of many machines and by doing so, it
is possible to use more number of weakly distributed computers and a big flood attack is created.

UDP Flood Attacks: In UDP protocol it is very easy to use interface to produce large quantity of packets . Hence it is very easy for an attacker to produce large packets with little effort and this is how a victim’s network is flooded with UDP packets and is attacked.

2. Protocol Attacks:

These type of attacks are divided into two types:

Smurf Attack: Here a spoof IP packet with ICMP echo -request with an address of victim’s system and a destination address are sent to an intermediate network. By sending an ICMP echo request to destination address , it triggers all the host that are included in the network and thus leading to production of large number of packets that are routed to that spoof IP address.

DNS name server Attack: his is one of the most common method for attacks, mainly by sending a high number of UDP based DNS requests to a nameserver using a spoof IP address, now any nameserver response is sent back to the destination i.e., to the spoofed IP address and here this IP address is the victim of the DoS attack. So, it is difficult for a nameserver or the victim to determine the true source of the attack.

3. Software Vulnerability Attacks:

These attacks are again divided into 3 types:

Land Attack: This kind of attack uses TCP/IP, here attacker sends a TCP SYN packets with source and destination address same i.e., same as the victim’s host address. The TCP/IP stack implements those kind of packets which leads to victim’s host to crush or hang. You can reduce the possibilities of your network being used as an initiate forged packets by filtering the out going packets that are having different source address from your internal network.

Ping of Death Attack: This is a method by which an attacker tries to crash , hang or reboot a system by sending illegal ICMP packet to the victim who is going to he attacked. Generally a TCP/IP allows a maximum packet size till 65536 octets, if the packets encountered are greater in size then victim’s host may crash. Usually the ICMP uses packets of header size of 8 octets by allows the user to specify even larger sizes. Here in Ping Death of attack ICMP packets are sent in the form of small parts of messages , when these are reorganized it turns out to be large packet size.

Teardrop Attack: In this type of attack first a packet of small size is sent. Then another packet said to be the part of the first packet sent. The second packet sent is very small to pick it from the first packet, this causes an error is assembling and the system may crash or hang. Generally fragmentation is very necessary if the message size is large , at the receiving end all the fragmented packets are reassembled to complete it, teardrop attacks concentrate here and sends unrelated fragment packets, which leads to system crash or hang when trying to assemble them.

Effects of DDoS:

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1. An DDoS attack on a site not only affects that site but also other site which relate to the same network and the server.

2.The bandwidth that is provided is attacked it not only affects the victim host but also the bandwidth provider and others who share bandwidth with the service provider.

3. When DoS attack it already increases the traffic to the site that the whole system crashes , in addition to that customers logging add more traffic to the site, this definitely leads to site crash .

4. Due to highly increased bandwidth by the attack you need pay extra to that highly increased bandwidth.

How to Handle DoS attacks:

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1. Initially before they attack you need to take preventions like separate client and server addresses, using path based client addresses strictly avoids spoof addressing, RPF checking of server addresses and also by using midwalls.

2. Detection is very important, as early you detect it you can lessen the damage. By using automated intrusion detecting system you can detect the attacks at an early stage and take necessary action.

3. What we do after the attack is very important, based on the attack try to follow the procedures and taking back up so as to avoid huge loss. Try to maintain the traffic and also for a while blocking the traffic and filtering is also important.

Conclusion:
It is always better to take precautionary steps to avoid DDoS attack as it causes a lot of damage not only to the victim host but also to the entire network that is connected to that host.

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Starting an online E-Commerce Business is very easy, you just need a website, a merchant account and a payment gateway. Definitely by this you will own an online business but there is lot of home work you need to do for a successful eCommerce business. An Ecommerce(electronic commerce) is a technology where buying and selling of products is done through internet or online.

You need to check for these 5 main points when you want to run a successful eCommerce business.

1. Research on your product:

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The very first thing you should do when you want to start an E-Commerce Business is make a research on the product that you are going to launch. Know the demand of the product, know your competitors in this field, know the market value of the product, know the raw material or other materials which are required to start your business. Make an estimation of the amount you have to invest in this business and how much profit you may get. You also need to check the negative side of this so that you can deal with it.

2. Make a Website:

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You should be very careful when designing your website because it is that which creates interest in the visitors to know more about your website. Make your website user friendly, Have a responsive web design because due to growing technology most of the people are preferring to browse sites on their tablets and mobiles. Design your website such a way that it supports all most all the web browsers and mobile devices.

Ecommerce Software:

By using E-Commerce software you can directly start your business just by adding your products, each ecommerce has a different theme and different web design. You can choose softwares that suits your field. Some of them are zen-cart, oscommerce, cubecart, prestashop, opencart etc.

3. Merchant account and payment gateway:

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When a customer is purchasing a product online then the first thing he will be looking for is a secure transaction. A merchant account is an account where a customer makes a payment to an account (i.e, the merchant from whom he is purchasing the product) and there will an agreement between the merchant account and the bank. Every bank has its own terms and conditions regarding merchant account. Choosing a payment gateway is also very important , it is an ecommerce application which provides service for payments through cards. When a product is purchased the buyer types his payment card information and the payment gateway using SSL encrypts the data, making a secure payment. There are many types of payment gateways each with a level of security, You need to choose that gateway which suits for your business.

4. Drive Traffic to your website:

SEO Process Diagram

This provides a vital role in SEO, you should know how to drive more traffic to your site as it increases your site ranking. Site ranking is very important because based on that ranking visitors think about trusting your website. There are many ways to drive traffic to your website by blogging, advertising, offers and many more. You need an experienced SEO to direct and help you in increasing traffic to your website. In the same way you need a writer to maintain and write articles in your blog regarding the type of business you are doing. Know more about On page and Off page optimization.  

5. Marketing :

iStock_000015350297XSmall

After you setup your website and making all the preparations to launch your website, you need to do a little bit of marketing. Make your brand page in facebook, create an account in twitter and other social media networks. Just don’t sit and expect people to come and buy your product, go online and try to sell them in all possible ways. Give advertisements in youtube and other sites, link up with other sites, let people know that there is a brand. There may be many competitors you should do anything unique so that it attracts more customers. If your product is unique or new in the market give people a reason to buy your product.

You should also be updated with the new technologies, marketing strategies and advancement in the products in your field. These are the five basic things you need to keep in mind while starting a eCommerce business.

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Someday when your business extends from smaller region to all over the world then your business website will be viewed by people all over the world. When you had a small business and your site was hosted at only one place that was fine but now, when it is viewed by people across seas do you think your site will be fast? The answer is NO, because as area increases the distance to be traveled by the files and folders of your site increases which obviously increases the page loading time,latency and sometimes due to routing issues those files may not reach its point and your website may not be displayed. For this there is a solution too and it is CDN(Content Delivery Network).

What is CDN?

CDN(Content Delivery Network) is a network placed in different parts of the world which contains files of the website. When a website is requested instead of travelling miles, nearest network would be approached and website will be loaded fast and also routing issues will be avoided. For example an Indian based website is accessed some where in new york and the site is also hosted in New Jersey, instead of travelling all the distance from India to new york, the site’s file will be transferred from new jersey to new york avoiding all the routing and other issues. It is like servers holding your files across the globe , reachable to all the people around the world and makes sure that your website is loaded fast and these servers are called “edge servers”.

How it works?

The working of a CDN under goes following steps:

  1. When a browser sends a request for a domain name, that is a DNS request is made.
  2. The server which is handling DNS requests will check for the domain name and sends back the IP address for the edge server which is closer to the area from where the request has been made.
  3. These Edge Servers are proxy caches similar to browser caches. When a request comes to the edge server it checks for the cache and see if the content is present or not.
  4. If the content is present and cache is not expired, the content will be displayed directly from the edge server.
  5. If the content is not present then the edge server makes a request to the origin server. The origin server is the true server of the website and is capable of providing the information available in CDN.
  6. As soon as the origin server sends the content, the edge server stores info in a cache based http header of response and also display the information to the browser.
  7. Once again when your request, if the cache is not expired the content will be directly displayed from edge servers rather than fetching content from origin server.

Origin Server and Edge Server:

The Edge servers just responds to the request and displays accordingly but the origin servers are being runned by technologies like java, .net or any other and hence any changes can be done in the origin server unlike edge servers are just having a copy of data present it origin server and cannot be changed. CDN is just a cache, if the data is always fetched from the origin server then there is no value for CDN. When an edge server makes a request to origin server then there is no value of CDN there and instead it costs more and takes longer time.This is the reason why all the java script,CSS, image files are served from data as they don’t change frequently.

How to setup?

No matter what ever CDN you are looking for, there are mainly 5steps common in setting up CDN. They are:

  • Sign Up:
    If you have been recommended some site for CDN, just go to that site and sign up for their service. In our case we prefer and suggest Cloudflare, so just get into its site and sign up.
  • Getting Files into the CDN:

Mostly all the web page assets like JavaScript,CSS,images should come from CDN as they are not changed frequently, only HTML pages come from your web host, that is origin server. It is not that easy to to get files into CDN but cloudflare makes it easy,just you need to give your urls and you will have an option to choose that description that describes your site and it will be done automatically.

  • Decide your url names:

When we provide the url names at the time of entering file to CDN they change once added in CDN. For example if xyz.com/css/home.css was you css file name, after adding in CDN it will change to gf455633jhk/home.css and this doesn’t look nice. So you can change them to cdn.xyz.com/home.css.

  • Make sure that right files are called:

You can check this through wordpress or CMS. You can just ask the CMS to swap the files using caching systems.

  • Testing:

You can test your site fro different locations by using webpagetest.org .

Why CloudFlare?

cdn-hosting-cloudflare

Cloudflare helps in protecting and acceleration your online website. It automatically optimizes the delivery of web page and helps your site to load faster. Before your page displays, the cloufare filters bots and other atackers before they attack your website. It is also very user friendly i.e., comfortable in changing the settings and easy to understand. It also provides many other features. To know more about Cloudflare Click Here: CloudFlare Overview

Benefits of CDN:

  • Loading time is faster.
  • Gives better performance.
  • Gives a better user experience.
  • Improves site ranking.
  • Protection against surge in traffic.
  • Protection against Dos.

Conclusion:

The importance of CDN will grow day by day as it plays a vital part in the internet. Even now many companies are trying to make advancement in the edge servers and provide the users fastest loading experience.Having a good knowledge about CDN and how they work helps in giving users a better experience of the website.

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